The modern Genetics consists of the advancement of genetics and discovery of chromosome.
Chromosome was discovered after the death of Mendel. When it comes to human cells half the number of chromosome exists in the reproductive cells of organism. Chromosome can be referred to as structures that are located on long molecules of DNA, Which consists of cell nucleus that are composed mostly of genes. Note that one chromosome can result to as many genes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shaped looks like spiral ladder. Each sides of the ladder consists of deoxyribose (a sugar) and phosphate. The rungs of the ladder consists of a pair of nitrogen bases, and there are four bases namely: i) Adenine (A) ii) Guanine (G) iii) Thymine (T) iv) Cytosine (C)
Note: (A) always pair with (T), and (C) always pair with G.
DNA controls the cell’s production of proteins. When it comes to protein synthesis, the information gotten from the cell nucleus is used to produce protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) which is also known as the messager, transport the code coming from the DNA and each set of base (three) pairs on the messenger RNA is known as codon.
The common advancement have paved ways for advancement in genetics. Nowadays animals are being clone without going through sexual reproduction, and this had led to controversy across the world. The introduction of Genetic engineering had made it possible to clone a particular organism with another. And also, genes have been identified to predispose people to diseases, and this can be identified by genetic testing whether they have any of this disease or not .e.g breast cancer and alzheimer’s disease. And lastly genetic disorder can be corrected through Gene Therapy.
1. When it comes to human cells …….. the number of chromosome exists in the reproductive system? A. Some of B. Part of C. Half of D. None of
2. Ribonucleic acid is also known as? A. By product B. DNA C. Codon D. Messenger
3. DNA controls the cell’s production of …..? A. RNA B. Proteins C. Code D. Cytoplasm
4. Each set of three base pairs on the messenger RNA is called? A. Codon B. Code C. Cloning D. Protein synthesis
5. From the above content, the rung of the ladder is made of a pair of nitrogen bases. Mention them?
Ans= adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C).