(GED Social Studies/Geography And The World; Lesson 2)-Feudalism To Nation States

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In the middle ages in Europe, warring groups or tribes dominated Europe territory for a long time. A certain tribal ruler name Charlemagne conquered Europe by 800. He established laws and introduce Christianity, commerce and education in Europe, before he died in 814.

Under feudalism, nobles were granted land by the king, while the noble’s soldier or knight protects the noble’s estate. Peasants do work on the farm. And taxes are paid; the noble receives taxes from the peasants, the nobles also paid taxes to the king.

During the late middle ages, the Christians and Muslim Turks fought over the holy city of Jerusalem in a series of wars known as the crusades. Christians gained control of the holy city and rule it for less than 90 years. Later on, the crusades were open to all for trade between the Middle East, Europe and china. This makes people to leave the manors or noble’s estate to go to the city were trade, money and merchants grow. The cities also gained economy, political and cultural importance.

Renaissance was spread from Italy to other part of Europe, where education, science and arts brought changes in the system. This renaissance also brought changes in the Catholic Church. In the 1500s, reformers criticized the church for abusing powers and believed that people should read the bible themselves.  


  1. During the middle ages Christians and Muslims Turks fought over? A. Politics B. Land C. Jerusalem D. Money


  1. The war between the Christians and Muslim Turks is called? A. Battles B. Inter-conflict war C. Religion war D. Crusades


  1. Complete the statement, reformers criticized the church for ……..? A. Destruction B. Abusing power C. Hypocrisy D. Murder